Coxon A, Rieu P, Barkalow FJ, Askari S, Sharpe AH, von Andrian UH, Arnaout MA, Mayadas TN. A novel role for the beta 2 integrin CD11b/CD18 in neutrophil apoptosis: a homeostatic mechanism in inflammation. Immunity. 1996;5 (6) :653-66.Abstract
In mice selectively deficient in CD11b/CD18, a beta 2 integrin, chemoattractant-induced leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium in vivo was reduced. Paradoxically, thioglycollate-induced neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneal cavity was increased and was associated with a significant delay in apoptosis of extravasated cells. The extravasated cells had a near absence of neutrophil phagocytosis and a reduction in oxygen free radical generation, which may contribute to the observed defect in apoptosis. This is supported by our in vitro studies, in which phagocytosis of opsonized particles by human neutrophils rapidly induced apoptosis that could be blocked with CD11b/ CD18 antibodies. Reactive oxygen species are the intracellular link in this process: phagocytosis-induced apoptosis was blocked both in neutrophils treated with the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and in neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, which lack NADPH oxidase. Thus, CD11b/CD18 plays a novel and unsuspected homeostatic role in inflammation by accelerating the programmed elimination of extravasated neutrophils.
Wang JH, Nichogiannopoulou A, Wu L, Sun L, Sharpe AH, Bigby M, Georgopoulos K. Selective defects in the development of the fetal and adult lymphoid system in mice with an Ikaros null mutation. Immunity. 1996;5 (6) :537-49.Abstract
Mice homozygous for an Ikaros null mutation display distinct defects in the development of fetal and adult lymphocytes. Fetal T lymphocytes, and fetal and adult B lymphocytes and their earliest progenitors are absent. Postnatally, hematopoietic stem cells give rise to thymocyte precursors that undergo aberrant differentiation into the CD4 lineage and clonal expansion. The lack of NK cells and some gamma delta T cell subsets and a large reduction in thymic dendritic APCs suggest that Ikaros is essential for establishing early branch points in the postnatal T cell pathway. The lymphoid defects detected in Ikaros null mice reveal critical molecular differences between fetal and postnatal hematopoietic progenitors that dictate their ability to give rise to T cells. These studies also establish Ikaros as a tumor suppressor gene acting during thymocyte differentiation. Phenotypic comparison of this null mutation with a severe dominant-negative Ikaros mutation identifies molecular redundancy in the postnatal hemolymphoid system.
Prabhu Das MR, Zamvil SS, Borriello F, Weiner HL, Sharpe AH, Kuchroo VK. Reciprocal expression of co-stimulatory molecules, B7-1 and B7-2, on murine T cells following activation. Eur J Immunol. 1995;25 (1) :207-11.Abstract
The co-stimulatory B7 molecules (B7-1 and B7-2) are expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells in mice. In this study, we demonstrate that B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) are also expressed on murine T cells in the absence of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. The temporal expression of these two molecules on T cells varies with the state of activation where resting T cells express B7-2 but show little or no expression of B7-1. Following activation, B7-2 expression is down-regulated and there is a concomitant increase in the expression of B7-1 on the cell surface which peaks at about 72 h. Thus these two co-stimulatory molecules are reciprocally expressed on the T cell surface. This pattern of expression of B7-1 and B7-2 on T cells suggests that these two molecules may have different roles in the generation and regulation of immune responses.
Sharpe AH. Analysis of lymphocyte costimulation in vivo using transgenic and 'knockout' mice. Curr Opin Immunol. 1995;7 (3) :389-95.Abstract
The use of transgenic technologies in the functional evaluation of the contributions of costimulatory pathways to T-cell activation in vivo has recently undergone a rapid expansion. During the past two years, mice deficient in costimulatory molecules and their receptors have been generated. These mice have revealed novel and critical in vivo functions of costimulatory pathways and have provided valuable models in which to test therapeutic strategies involving costimulatory pathway blockade. Transgenic mice constitutively expressing costimulatory molecules have provided insights into their role in peripheral tolerance.
Thomis DC, Gurniak CB, Tivol E, Sharpe AH, Berg LJ. Defects in B lymphocyte maturation and T lymphocyte activation in mice lacking Jak3. Science. 1995;270 (5237) :794-7.Abstract
Biochemical studies of signaling mediated by many cytokine and growth factor receptors have implicated members of the Jak family of tyrosine kinases in these pathways. Specifically, Jak3 has been shown to be associated with the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor gamma chain, a component of the receptors for IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-15. Mice lacking Jak3 showed a severe block in B cell development at the pre-B stage in the bone marrow. In contrast, although the thymuses of these mice were small, T cell maturation progressed relatively normally. In response to mitogenic signals, peripheral T cells in Jak3-deficient mice did not proliferate and secreted small amounts of IL-2. These data demonstrate that Jak3 is critical for the progression of B cell development in the bone marrow and for the functional competence of mature T cells.
Borriello F, Oliveros J, Freeman GJ, Nadler LM, Sharpe AH. Differential expression of alternate mB7-2 transcripts. J Immunol. 1995;155 (12) :5490-7.Abstract
The murine B7-2 (mB7-2) costimulatory molecule is expressed on APCs early during the course of an immune response, suggesting that it may play a pivotal role in the decision between T cell activation and anergy. Murine B7-2 mRNA displays a restricted pattern of expression; it is inducible in B cells, T cells, NK cells, and dendritic cells, but constitutively expressed in unstimulated monocytes. The constitutive and inducible expression of mB7-2 on distinct cell types indicates that mB7-2 is regulated differentially. To further characterize mB7-2 transcripts, we employed 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcriptase-PCR to examine transcripts expressed in a variety of types of APCs and analyzed the genomic organization of the mB7-2 gene. We report here that the mB7-2 locus consists of 12 exons and demonstrate that exons 1 through 5 can be used in alternative fashions to produce five distinct transcripts, differing in their 5' untranslated and signal regions. The expression of these transcripts differs in distinct types of APCs and is modulated by stimuli that activate B cells. These results demonstrate that mB7-2 transcripts are differentially regulated in a tissue-specific fashion and in response to activation stimuli.
Jellis CL, Wang SS, Rennert P, Borriello F, Sharpe AH, Green NR, Gray GS. Genomic organization of the gene coding for the costimulatory human B-lymphocyte antigen B7-2 (CD86). Immunogenetics. 1995;42 (2) :85-9.Abstract
The generation of an antigen-specific T-cell response requires that the T lymphocyte receive two signals from the antigen presenting cell. The specificity of this response is provided by antigen presented to the T lymphocyte and involves stimulation of the T lymphocyte via the T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex. The second, or costimulatory signal, can be provided by ligation of the B-lymphocyte activation antigens B7-1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) to TCR antigen CD28. The cDNAs for both CD80 and CD86 have been isolated and are predicted to encode type 1 membrane proteins of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. The predicted protein is composed of a signal peptide followed by two Ig-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. Here we report that the genomic organization of CD86 reflects its functional structure, and is similar to that found for CD80. The gene is composed of eight exons which span more than 22 kilobases. The predicted protein functional domains of signal peptide, extracellular IgV- and IgC-like regions, and transmembrane domain coincide with the genomic structure. Two independent sequences had been reported for CD86 cDNA which differed in their 5'untranslated (UT) regions. We find CD86 exons 1 and 2 correspond to these alternate 5'UT sequences. Splicing of exon 1 or 2 with the signal peptide encoding exon 3 would produce mRNA transcripts complementary to the reported cDNA clones. Exons 4 and 5 correspond to IgV- and IgC-like extracellular domains, respectively. Exon 6 encodes the transmembrane region and beginning of the cytoplasmic tail. Exons 7 and 8 encode the remainder of the cytoplasmic tail and 3'UT sequences.
Witke W, Sharpe AH, Hartwig JH, Azuma T, Stossel TP, Kwiatkowski DJ. Hemostatic, inflammatory, and fibroblast responses are blunted in mice lacking gelsolin. Cell. 1995;81 (1) :41-51.Abstract
Gelsolin, an 82 kDa actin-binding protein, has potent actin filament-severing activity in vitro. To investigate the in vivo function of gelsolin, transgenic gelsolin-null (Gsn-) mice were generated and found to have normal embryonic development and longevity. However, platelet shape changes are decreased in Gsn- mice, causing prolonged bleeding times. Neutrophil migration in vivo into peritoneal exudates and in vitro is delayed. Gsn- dermal fibroblasts have excessive actin stress fibers and migrate more slowly than wild-type fibroblasts, but have increased contractility in vitro. These observations establish the requirement of gelsolin for rapid motile responses in cell types involved in stress responses such as hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing. Neither gelsolin nor other proteins with similar actin filament-severing activity are expressed in early embryonic cells, indicating that this mechanism of actin filament dynamics is not essential for motility during early embryogenesis.
Perkins AC, Sharpe AH, Orkin SH. Lethal beta-thalassaemia in mice lacking the erythroid CACCC-transcription factor EKLF. Nature. 1995;375 (6529) :318-22.Abstract
Globin genes are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, with the beta-globin gene being the last to be activated in the beta-gene cluster. CACCC-nucleotide sequences, which bind multiple nuclear proteins, including ubiquitously expressed Sp1 and erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF), are among the cis-regulatory sequences critical for transcription of globin and non-globin erythroid-expressed genes. To determine the function of EKLF in vivo, we created mice deficient in EKLF by gene targeting. These embryos die of anaemia during fetal liver erythropoiesis and show the molecular and haematological features of beta-globin deficiency, found in beta-thalassaemia. Although it is expressed at all stages, EKLF is not required for yolk sac erythropoiesis, erythroid commitment or expression of other potential target genes. Its stage-specific and beta-globin-gene-specific requirement suggests that EKLF may facilitate completion of the fetal-to-adult (haemoglobin gamma to beta) switch in humans.
Tivol EA, Borriello F, Schweitzer AN, Lynch WP, Bluestone JA, Sharpe AH. Loss of CTLA-4 leads to massive lymphoproliferation and fatal multiorgan tissue destruction, revealing a critical negative regulatory role of CTLA-4. Immunity. 1995;3 (5) :541-7.Abstract
The B7-CD28/CTLA-4 costimulatory pathway can provide a signal pivotal for T cell activation. Signaling through this pathway is complex due to the presence of two B7 family members, B7-1 and B7-2, and two counterreceptors, CD28 and CTLA-4. Studies with anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies have suggested both positive and negative roles for CTLA-4 in T cell activation. To elucidate the in vivo function of CTLA-4, we generated CTLA-4-deficient mice. These mice rapidly develop lymphoproliferative disease with multiorgan lymphocytic infiltration and tissue destruction, with particularly severe myocarditis and pancreatitis, and die by 3-4 weeks of age. The phenotype of the CTLA-4-deficient mouse strain is supported by studies that have suggested a negative role for CTLA-4 in T cell activation. The severe phenotype of mice lacking CTLA-4 implies a critical role for CTLA-4 in down-regulating T cell activation and maintaining immunologic homeostasis. In the absence of CTLA-4, peripheral T cells are activated, can spontaneously proliferate, and may mediate lethal tissue injury.
Johnson KA, Lerner CP, Di Lacio LC, Laird PW, Sharpe AH, Simpson EM. Transgenic mice for the preparation of hygromycin-resistant primary embryonic fibroblast feeder layers for embryonic stem cell selections. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23 (7) :1273-5.
Borriello F, Freeman GJ, Edelhoff S, Disteche CM, Nadler LM, Sharpe AH. Characterization of the murine B7-1 genomic locus reveals an additional exon encoding an alternative cytoplasmic domain and a chromosomal location of chromosome 16, band B5. J Immunol. 1994;153 (11) :5038-48.Abstract
The murine B7-1 (mB7-1) molecule expressed on APCs delivers a costimulatory signal for T cell activation through its T cell counter-receptor CD28, resulting in T cell proliferation and IL-2 production. Signaling through the TCR in the absence of CD28 signaling results in T cell anergy. We have analyzed the genomic structure of mB7-1 and here describe the identification of a previously unrecognized sixth exon at the far 3' end of the locus, which encodes an alternative cytoplasmic domain. Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification of mB7-1 transcripts demonstrates that exon 6 is functionally spliced to the transmembrane-encoding exon 4. Furthermore, using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we determined that the 5'-untranslated region extends over 1505 bp beyond the previously reported transcriptional start site. In addition, we report the chromosomal location of mB7-1 to chromosome 16, band B5.
Sethna MP, Van Parijs L, Sharpe AH, Abbas AK, Freeman GJ. A negative regulatory function of B7 revealed in B7-1 transgenic mice. Immunity. 1994;1 (5) :415-21.Abstract
To analyze the functions of T cell costimulators in vivo, we have constructed a transgenic mouse strain that constitutively expresses murine B7-1 on mature B cells. Antibody responses to T-dependent hapten-protein conjugates and serum immunoglobulin levels are markedly depressed in B7-1 transgenic mice. This immune deficiency is not due to an intrinsic B cell defect, as antibody responses to T-independent hapten conjugates are normal. Furthermore, treatment with anti-B7-1 restores the capacity of transgenic mice to respond to hapten-protein conjugates, demonstrating that the deficient antibody responses are directly attributable to the expression of B7-1. These results suggest that the temporally regulated expression of costimulators such as B7-1 may contribute to either initiation or down-regulation (feedback inhibition) of T-dependent immune responses in vivo, and that the inhibitory function is dominant in transgenic mice that constitutively express high levels of this costimulator.
Sharpe AH, Jaenisch R. Retroviral spongiform degenerative disease produced by the murine neurotropic retrovirus Cas-Br-E. Dev Biol Stand. 1993;80 :45-52.Abstract
The murine neurotropic retrovirus Cas-Br-E causes a non-inflammatory spongiform neurodegenerative disease involving the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebellum, manifest as a progressive, fatal lower motor neuron disease. Using in utero infection of mid-gestation mouse embryos, we have developed a rapid model for the study of this disease. Infection of mid-gestation embryos caused paralysis and death within 25 days after birth, in contrast to virus-infected neonates, which develop disease only after three months. We have found that this model is well suited not only to the study of neurovirulence but also to the rapid, quantitative assessment of treatment strategies in the CNS. The drug 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) was found to cross the placental barrier effectively and markedly retarded the onset and course of disease, when given to infected embryos through the drinking water of pregnant females. CNS injury seems to be due to a direct viral action, but the precise target cells of the virus are uncertain. The identification of the viral target cells is complicated by the presence of numerous endogenous retroviruses in the mouse genome, as well as difficulties with identifying infected cell types by morphology alone. To identify Cas-Br-E-infected cells precisely, we have performed in situ hybridization studies using a Cas-Br-E-specific riboprobe and found that infected cells are in regions of the CNS in which spongiform lesions develop and in regions without any obvious pathology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Lee KF, Li E, Huber LJ, Landis SC, Sharpe AH, Chao MV, Jaenisch R. Targeted mutation of the gene encoding the low affinity NGF receptor p75 leads to deficits in the peripheral sensory nervous system. Cell. 1992;69 (5) :737-49.Abstract
We have generated mice carrying a mutation of the gene encoding the low affinity NGF receptor p75NGFR by targeted mutation in embryonic stem cells. Mice homozygous for the mutation were viable and fertile. Immunohistochemical analyses of the footpad skin of mutant mice revealed markedly decreased sensory innervation by calcitonin gene-related peptide- and substance P-immunoreactive fibers. The defective innervation was correlated with loss of heat sensitivity and associated with the development of ulcers in the distal extremities. Complicated by secondary bacterial infection, the ulcers progressed to toenail and hair loss. Crossing a human transgene encoding p75NGFR into the mutant animals rescued the absent heat sensitivity and the occurrence of skin ulcers and increased the density of neuropeptide-immunoreactive sensory innervation of footpad skin. The mutation in the gene encoding p75NGFR did not decrease the size of sympathetic ganglia or the density of sympathetic innervation of the iris or salivary gland. Our results suggest that p75NGFR has an important role in the development and function of sensory neurons.
Lee JS, Mullaney S, Bronson R, Sharpe AH, Jaenisch R, Balzarini J, De Clercq E, Ruprecht RM. Transplacental antiretroviral therapy with 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine is embryotoxic in transgenic mice. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4 (9) :833-8.Abstract
Transgenic Mov-14 mice, which carry the provirus of Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) in the germ line and begin to produce infectious virus on embryonic day 14, were used to evaluate the ability of 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA) to cross the placenta and protect embryos from viremia. We have used the Mov-14 model previously to demonstrate the antiviral efficacy and lack of teratogenicity of transplacental therapy with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, ZDV). PMEA was administered to pregnant females by daily intraperitoneal injection or by osmotic pump. In contrast to ZDV, PMEA was either noneffective in preventing viremia in the offspring or embryotoxic, depending on the dose. The specific toxic effects seen were resorption of pregnancy, low birth weight, and neonatal death. Histopathological analysis of neonatal mice exposed to PMEA showed severe lymphoid depletion of the thymus. We conclude that PMEA therapy is contraindicated for use during pregnancy.
Ruprecht RM, Sharpe AH, Jaenisch R, Trites D. Analysis of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine levels in tissues and milk by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr. 1990;528 (2) :371-83.Abstract
A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was established to analyze levels of the antiretroviral agent 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) in serum, milk and tissue extracts. After methanol precipitation, serum samples could be injected directly into the HPLC apparatus, whereas tissue extracts required further clarification. Recovery of AZT was virtually complete. Isocratic elution with a mobile phase consisting of 6% acetonitrile and 0.1 M ammonium acetate, pH adjusted to 4.5 with glacial acetic acid, resulted in good resolution of AZT and its metabolites; retention times for AZT and the internal standard, p-nitrophenol, were 20 and 37 min, respectively. Using this method, we have demonstrated that AZT crosses both the blood-brain and placental barriers and is excreted into milk at high levels.
Sugimoto M, Sharpe AH, Sato Y, Greene MI, Fields BN. Reovirus transport--studies using lymphocytosis promoting factor. Pathobiology. 1990;58 (4) :185-92.Abstract
To explore how bacteria and their products may modulate viral infection, we investigated the effect of a well-characterized and highly purified product of Bordetella pertussis, a pertussis toxin, also known as lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF), on enteric reovirus infection. LPF is known to have a variety of effects, including modulation of circulation and homing of lymphoid cells. When adult mice are inoculated with reovirus type 1 perorally, reovirus first enters the Peyer's patches (PP) through M cells, and then spreads to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen with minimal dissemination to other peripheral tissues. In view of the profound effect of LPF on lymphoid tissues, we evaluated whether LPF might influence the early stages of type-1 reovirus infection following peroral inoculation. Pretreatment of adult BALB/c mice with LPF significantly inhibited the spread of reovirus in a manner dependent upon the route of inoculation; LPF inhibited the extra-intestinal spread of virus from PP to MLN after intragastric inoculation; in contrast there was enhancement of the spread of blood-borne viruses to MLN after intravenous inoculation. This result, together with the fact that the efferent lymph from PP reaches MLN, suggests that a proportion of reoviruses were conveyed from PP to MLN in association with lymphoid cells along the lymphatic channels and that LPF affects reovirus, in part, by blocking cell movement.
Sharpe AH, Hunter JJ, Chassler P, Jaenisch R. Role of abortive retroviral infection of neurons in spongiform CNS degeneration. Nature. 1990;346 (6280) :181-3.Abstract
Retroviruses are involved in several human neurological diseases with varying pathological features. Whether these diseases are due to a direct effect of the virus on nervous system cells is unknown. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of one retroviral neurological disease, we are studying the murine neurotropic retrovirus, Cas-Br-E, which causes lower motor neuron disease associated with spongiform degenerative changes in brain and spinal cord. Central nervous system (CNS) injury seems to be due to direct viral action, but the precise target cells of the virus are uncertain. After blood-borne virus enters the CNS it is found in capillary endothelial cells. No microscopic evidence for virus within glia or neurons has been found in some studies, whereas virus or incomplete particles have been observed in CNS cells in other studies. Here we identify the neuron as a major target for Cas-Br-E in the CNS, suggesting that this disease may be a direct result of viral infection of neurons. We also show that envelope protein (Env, encoded by the env gene), a major determinant of neurovirulence, cannot be detected in neurons but is present in non-neuronal cells, although spliced env messenger RNA is synthesized in CNS tissue. This suggests that a post-transcriptional step in Cas-Br-E Env protein synthesis is impaired and that the neurological disease may be a consequence of abortive replication of virus in neurons. This may explain the failure to find neuronal infection in other neurological diseases by conventional methods of virus detection.
Weiher H, Noda T, Gray DA, Sharpe AH, Jaenisch R. Transgenic mouse model of kidney disease: insertional inactivation of ubiquitously expressed gene leads to nephrotic syndrome. Cell. 1990;62 (3) :425-34.Abstract
Transgenic mouse strains carrying proviruses were generated by exposing mouse embryos to a recombinant retrovirus. Animals carrying a single provirus were intercrossed to derive mice homozygous for a given proviral insertion. Adult mice homozygous for the Mpv17 integration developed nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure. Histologically, affected kidneys showed progressive glomerular sclerosis. Similar lesions are seen in patients with progressive renal function deterioration. A probe to DNA sequences flanking the provirus detected a 1.7 kb RNA ubiquitously expressed during embryogenesis and in adults with high levels in kidney, brain, and heart. This RNA was not detected in tissues of homozygous animals, suggesting that the provirus interferes with RNA expression. Sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed that the gene encodes a 176 amino acid peptide containing hydrophobic regions, suggesting membrane association of the putative protein. The Mpv17 mutant is a potentially useful experimental system for studying mechanisms leading to renal disorders in man.