PD-1 and its ligands in T-cell immunity.


Keir ME, Francisco LM, Sharpe AH. PD-1 and its ligands in T-cell immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007;19 (3) :309-14.

Date Published:

2007 Jun


The past year has seen significant advances in our understanding of the critical roles of negative immunoregulatory signals delivered by the programmed death 1 (PD-1)-PD-1 ligand (PD-L) pathway in regulating T-cell activation and tolerance. Emerging evidence indicates that PD-Ls play an essential role on dendritic cells (DCs), both directly during DC-T cell interactions and indirectly through signaling into the DC. Recent studies point to a novel role for PD-L1 in maintaining tissue tolerance. Finally, PD-1 has recently been shown to be highly expressed on exhausted T cells during chronic viral infection, and blockade of PD-1 or PD-L1 can revive exhausted T cells, enabling them to proliferate and produce effector cytokines.