Negative co-receptors on lymphocytes.


Greenwald RJ, Latchman YE, Sharpe AH. Negative co-receptors on lymphocytes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002;14 (3) :391-6.

Date Published:

2002 Jun


The past year has seen significant advances in our understanding of critical roles of negative immunoregulatory signals delivered through the B7-CD28 superfamily in regulating T cell activation and tolerance. Structural data on CTLA-4 have provided novel insights into the inhibitory functions of CTLA-4. Initial characterization of the PD-1-PD-1-ligand pathway has revealed that this pathway can downregulate TCR- and CD28-mediated signals. Recent studies indicate that ICOS exerts distinct effects at different phases of an immune response: ICOS can inhibit as well as stimulate T cell responses.