T cell activation and cytokine secretion are important mediators of inflammation in allergic asthma. The costimulatory pathway CD28/CD80/CD86 has been shown to play an important role in T cell activation in allergic asthma, but less is known about the effect of other costimulatory molecules in allergy. The costimulatory molecule OX40 ligand (OX40L), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has been shown to be important in T cell priming and cytokine production. We investigated the role of OX40L in a murine model of allergic inflammation using OX40L(-/-) mice. In this model, following OVA sensitization and challenge, mice develop features of allergic inflammation including elevated levels of total serum IgE, pulmonary eosinophils, cytokines, and pulmonary inflammation. In the absence of OX40L, total serum IgE, pulmonary eosinophils, cytokines, and pulmonary inflammation were all significantly reduced compared to wild-type controls. Levels of eotaxin mRNA, an eosinophil-specific chemoattractant, were also markedly reduced, paralleling the significant reduction in pulmonary eosinophils. Levels of allergen-induced Th1 as well as Th2 cytokines were also significantly reduced. Together, the data support a critical role for OX40L signals in allergic responses.