Oncology has recently undergone a revolutionary change with widespread adoption of immunotherapy for many cancers. Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies against checkpoint molecules, including programmed death (PD)-1, PD ligand (PD-L)1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, is effective in a significant subset of patients. However, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have emerged as frequent complications of checkpoint blockade, likely due to the physiological role of checkpoint pathways in regulating adaptive immunity and preventing autoimmunity. As immunotherapy becomes more common, a better understanding of the etiology of irAEs and ways to limit these events is needed. At the same time, studying these new therapy-related disorders provides an opportunity to better understand naturally occurring human autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, with the potential to improve therapies for cancer and autoimmune diseases.