The mode locking of the mixed sesquioxide single crystal Yb:LuScO(3) is demonstrated. This crystal is locally disordered and has the broadest emission spectrum of all sesquioxides known so far. Pulse durations as short as 111 and 74 fs were obtained using the semiconductor saturable absorber mirror and Kerr-lens mode locking, respectively. The latter regime was reached using a two-section distributed Bragg-reflector tapered diode laser as a pump source.
Interactions of the inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) with its ligands, programmed death ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2, regulate T-cell activation and tolerance. In this study, we investigated the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in regulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell-mediated airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. We found that the severity of AHR and airway inflammation is significantly greater in PD-L2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice after either ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge or administration of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). iNKT cells from PD-L2(-/-) mice produced significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than iNKT cells from control mice. Moreover, blockade of PD-L2 interactions of wild-type iNKT cells in vitro with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) resulted in significantly enhanced levels of IL-4 production. In contrast, PD-L1(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced AHR and enhanced production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by iNKT cells. iNKT-deficient Jalpha18(-/-) mice reconstituted with iNKT cells from PD-L2(-/-) mice developed high levels of AHR, whereas mice reconstituted with iNKT cells from PD-L1(-/-) mice developed lower levels of AHR compared with control. As PD-L2 is not expressed on iNKT cells but rather is expressed on lung dendritic cells (DCs), in which its expression is upregulated by allergen challenge or IL-4, these findings suggest an important role of PD-L2 on lung DCs in modulating asthma pathogenesis. These studies also indicate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have important but opposing roles in the regulation of AHR and iNKT-cell-mediated activation.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and the PD-1: PD-ligand (PD-L) pathway are both critical to terminating immune responses. Elimination of either can result in the breakdown of tolerance and the development of autoimmunity. The PD-1: PD-L pathway can thwart self-reactive T cells and protect against autoimmunity in many ways. In this review, we highlight how PD-1 and its ligands defend against potentially pathogenic self-reactive effector T cells by simultaneously harnessing two mechanisms of peripheral tolerance: (i) the promotion of Treg development and function and (ii) the direct inhibition of potentially pathogenic self-reactive T cells that have escaped into the periphery. Treg cells induced by the PD-1 pathway may also assist in maintaining immune homeostasis, keeping the threshold for T-cell activation high enough to safeguard against autoimmunity. PD-L1 expression on non-hematopoietic cells as well as hematopoietic cells endows PD-L1 with the capacity to promote Treg development and enhance Treg function in lymphoid organs and tissues that are targets of autoimmune attack. At sites where transforming growth factor-beta is present (e.g. sites of immune privilege or inflammation), PD-L1 may promote the de novo generation of Tregs. When considering the consequences of uncontrolled immunity, it would be therapeutically advantageous to manipulate Treg development and sustain Treg function. Thus, this review also discusses how the PD-1 pathway regulates a number of autoimmune diseases and the therapeutic potential of PD-1: PD-L modulation.
Memory B and plasma cells (PCs) are generated in the germinal center (GC). Because follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) have high expression of the immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1, we investigated the role of PD-1 signaling in the humoral response. We found that the PD-1 ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 were upregulated on GC B cells. Mice deficient in PD-L2 (Pdcd1lg2(-/-)), PD-L1 and PD-L2 (Cd274(-/-)Pdcd1lg2(-/-)) or PD-1 (Pdcd1(-/-)) had fewer long-lived PCs. The mechanism involved more GC cell death and less T(FH) cell cytokine production in the absence of PD-1; the effect was selective, as remaining PCs had greater affinity for antigen. PD-1 expression on T cells and PD-L2 expression on B cells controlled T(FH) cell and PC numbers. Thus, PD-1 regulates selection and survival in the GC, affecting the quantity and quality of long-lived PCs.
The inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) is upregulated on antigen-specific CD8+ T cells during persistent viral infections. Interaction with PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) contributes to functional exhaustion of responding T cells and may limit immunopathology during infection. PD-L1 is expressed on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in tissues. However, the exact roles of PD-L1 on hematopoietic versus nonhematopoietic cells in modulating immune responses are unclear. Here we used bone marrow chimeric mice to examine the effects of PD-L1 deficiency in hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV CL-13) infection. We found that PD-L1 expression on hematopoietic cells inhibited CD8+ T cell numbers and function after LCMV CL-13 infection. In contrast, PD-L1 expression on nonhematopoietic cells limited viral clearance and immunopathology in infected tissues. Together, these data demonstrate that there are distinct roles for PD-L1 on hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells in regulating CD8+ T cell responses and viral clearance during chronic viral infection.
Tumor-induced immune defects can weaken host immune response and permit tumor cell growth. In a systemic model of murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML), tumor progression resulted in increased regulatory T cells (Treg) and elevation of program death-1 (PD-1) expression on CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) at the tumor site. PD-1 knockout mice were more resistant to AML despite the presence of similar percentage of Tregs compared with wild type. In vitro, intact Treg suppression of CD8(+) T-cell responses was dependent on PD-1 expression by T cells and Tregs and PD-L1 expression by antigen-presenting cells. In vivo, the function of adoptively transferred AML-reactive CTLs was reduced by AML-associated Tregs. Anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody treatment increased the proliferation and function of CTLs at tumor sites, reduced AML tumor burden, and resulted in long-term survivors. Treg depletion followed by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade showed superior efficacy for eradication of established AML. These data demonstrated that interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 can facilitate Treg-induced suppression of T-effector cells and dampen the antitumor immune response. PD-1/PD-L1 blockade coupled with Treg depletion represents an important new approach that can be readily translated into the clinic to improve the therapeutic efficacy of adoptive AML-reactive CTLs in advanced AML disease.
PURPOSE. Given that dry eye disease (DED) is associated with T cell-mediated inflammation of the ocular surface and that PD-L1 is an important negative or inhibitory regulator of immune responses constitutively expressed at high levels by corneal epithelial cells, the authors studied the expression and function of PD-L1 in DED. METHODS. Dry eye was induced in untreated wild-type mice, PD-L1(-/-) mice, and wild-type mice treated with anti-PD-L1 antibody by exposing these mice to a desiccating environment in the controlled environment chamber modified with subcutaneous administration of scopolamine. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the expression of chemokine gene transcript levels of multiple CC and CXC chemokine ligands and receptors. Epifluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate corneal infiltration of CD3(+) T cells after immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS. The increased expression of specific chemokine ligands and receptors in PD-L1(-/-) corneas of normal mice is associated with significant increases in T-cell homing into these corneas. Similar, and more enhanced, increases in T-cell infiltration were observed in PD-L1(-/-) DED mice or DED mice treated with anti-PD-L1 antibody compared with controls. In addition, the authors found significantly decreased expression of PD-L1 by corneal epithelial cells in DED and significantly increased corneal fluorescein staining score with PD-L1 functional blockade using anti-PD-L1 antibody. CONCLUSIONS. Downregulation of corneal epithelial PD-L1 amplifies dry eye-associated corneal inflammation and epitheliopathy by increasing the expression of chemokine ligands and receptors that promote T-cell homing to the ocular surface.
While the role of PD-1 in inhibiting immunity during chronic infections is well established, its functions during acute infections are much less clear. The PD-1 pathway can dampen CD8 T cell responses during some acute infections and restrain responses by 'helpless' CD8 memory T cells. An emerging role for PD-1 in innate immunity has been revealed by recent studies showing that PD-1 can limit function of DC and macrophages as well as T cell independent B cell responses. Thus, PD-1 can influence adaptive immune responses during acute infections, though precisely how this regulation occurs is only just beginning to be appreciated.